The US$17 million Forest Investment Program (FIP) funded by the Asian Development Bank (ADB) to help tackle deforestation and forest degradation in Indonesia is set to start in July, an official has said. “The FIP is funded by a $17 million grant from the Climate Investment Fund channeled through the ADB to support the Indonesian government to implement the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) targets in West Kalimantan,” said ADB principal climate change specialist Ancha Srinivasan, who is also the FIP’s focal point.
- Forest-dependent communities are among the most marginalized in the world. Deforestation has an impact on both their surroundings and their livelihoods.
- The new Dedicated Grant Mechanism (DGM), designed by and for those communities and financed by the Forest Investment Program, puts Indigenous Peoples and local communities in charge of design and funding decisions for projects that fight forest loss.
- The first DGM project is in Brazil, where $6.5 million was approved to help finance agroforestry initiatives based on native and adapted fruits in the Cerrado region.
An innovative new grant program for fighting forest loss is putting project design and funding decisions in the hands of indigenous peoples and local communities and giving them the power to set priorities and implement programs aimed at conserving their natural environment.
Several members of forest communities say they see it as a unifying platform they can use to make their voices heard and to tackle forest loss and climate change on their own terms.
The program, called the Dedicated Grant Mechanism (DGM), is financed by the Climate Investment Funds as a special initiative of the Forest Investment Program and was recently approved by the World Bank Board of Directors. It will be implemented at both global and national levels in countries implementing the Forest Investment Program.
“We have never had this kind of program before … we have the ownership of this program,” said Mina Setra, from Aliansi Masyarakat Adat Nusantara (AMAN), one of the largest organizations of Indigenous Peoples in Indonesia, who represents the Kalimantan region of Indonesia on the DGM national steering committee. “I think this is a good opportunity for Indigenous Peoples to exercise our capacities in managing programs and also funding. That is what is unique about the dedicated grant mechanism.”
Designed by and for Indigenous Peoples and local communities
Forests play an important role in our world. They help combat climate change by absorbing about 15 percent of the planet’s greenhouse gas emissions and also provide economic, social and environmental services – from creating jobs to providing housing and food to protecting the watershed. An estimated 1.3 billion people, or nearly 20 percent of the world’s population, rely on forests and forest products for their livelihoods.
But forest-dependent communities are among the most marginalized in the world, with the majority living on less than $1.25 per day. And deforestation not only damages their surroundings, but it also adds to the carbon footprint.
World Bank Group Vice President and Special Envoy for Climate Change Rachel Kyte welcomed the Board’s approval of the new program. “This global mechanism fully recognizes the vital role communities play in the stewardship of forests and is the first to ensure that indigenous people and forest dependent communities will design, implement and govern the program according to their own priorities,” Kyte said.
Designed by and for Indigenous Peoples and local communities, the DGM has two components: country-specific projects and a global learning and exchange project that links all the country projects and serves as a global outreach platform.
Funding agroforestry in the Cerrado
So far, funding has been approved for the global learning project (nearly $5 million) and for the first of the country series in Brazil, where $6.5 million was approved for a project in the Cerrado region, a massive expanse of wooded grasslands that makes up more than 20 percent of Brazil. That money will be used in part to help finance agroforestry initiatives based on native and adapted fruits, to help pay for processing units for agriculture and non-timber forest products and also to help with production and commercialization of handicrafts.
Two Quilombola women participate in the first consultations for the Cerrado project.
"We understand the importance this will have for our projects. Not only for our projects but also for conservation and our fight to keep the Cerrado standing."
The country programs like Brazil’s will also enhance leadership and negotiation skills to give indigenous people and local community members an opportunity to actively participate in initiatives related to natural resource-based mitigation and climate change adaptation.
“This project is very important for supporting the indigenous communities here in the Cerrado,” said, Deborah Wetzel, World Bank Country Director for Brazil. “The proposed project will provide the tools to access resources that will help communities manage the environmental and social impacts of their activities.”
Januario Tseredzaro, a member of the Xavante people who lives in the Cerrado, agrees. He says the new Dedicated Grant Mechanism will help Indigenous Peoples as they seek to halt deforestation.
“We understand the importance this will have for our projects. Not only for our projects but also for conservation and our fight to keep the Cerrado standing,” Tseredzaro said. “I hope that its success will expand the program to other biomes of Brazil.”
On a global level, the Global Learning and Knowledge Exchange Project, to be implemented by Conservation International USA, will help train representatives from indigenous groups and local communities to take part in climate negotiations and to ensure their views are represented. The country programs expand on that training but also include more country-specific initiatives.
More countries will soon be proposing their own projects under the Dedicated Grant Mechanism. The Democratic Republic of Congo, Burkina Faso and Peru are in the process of setting up the institutional arrangements for the program in their countries and will be operational later this year.
Originally published at the World Babk website here
Photos by Mariana Kaipper Ceratti/World Bank
As a follow-up to the workshop on forest accounting in May 2014, organized by the Wealth Accounting and Valuation of Ecosystem Services Partnership (WAVES) in Washington, DC, work will begin in Ghana and Mexico to explore the potential for forest accounts.
To see a slideshow of images from Burkina Faso's Tiogo forest, click here.
TIOGO, Burkina Faso (Thomson Reuters Foundation) – While visiting a portion of the Tiogo forest in the center west of Burkina Faso recently, Louis Ouédraogo couldn’t hide his wrath. Someone had entered the forest and cut down about two hectares worth of trees to plant millet as the rainy season approached.
“This person should have gone straight to jail had he been caught,” said Ouédraogo, the regional director for the Centre West of Burkina Faso for the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development. He urged members of the local Union of Land Use Groups to find the culprit and bring him to the police.
Protecting forests in Burkina Faso, as in much of the Sahel, is a continuing challenge. Population growth, expansion of farms and grazing and cutting of wood for cooking and charcoal production have all led to loss of trees or the degradation of forests.
Keeping people out of the forests isn’t an option, as many of the country’s families, who live at or below the poverty line, depend on charcoal making and selling forest products like shea butter and medicinal plants for over a quarter of their income, particularly at times when drought cuts income from farming or livestock.
“It is immoral to keep the forests untapped while populations living around them suffer from poverty, so there is a need to find a compromise that will ensure the protection of the forests resources and their regeneration, while reducing poverty through use of forest products,” said Mathurin Zida, regional coordinator for West Africa of the Center for International Forestry Research.
Such a compromise is being developed and strengthened with the help of funds from the Forest Investment Program of the Climate Investment Funds. Under the programme, Burkina Faso will tap $30 million in grants, and is expected to leverage at least an additional $13 million in resources from the government and other donor governments, to improve the governance of the country’s forests and limit forest loss and degradation in both state-owned and community-owned forests.
According to Urbain Belemsobgo, secretary general of the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development and the government official leading the Forest Investment Program effort in Burkina Faso, the investment will strengthen government’s efforts to fight deforestation and reduce poverty through participative management of land.
“The program comes to consolidate an approach that has been adopted in the 80s, so that any decision is made in a transparent, participative and operational way for a better governance of resources,” Belemsobgo said.
NO NEED FOR FENCES
Ouédraogo said such a participative approach is culturally necessary “so as to include all populations groups” and make sure communities back the effort. With such full participation, “we do not need fences or guards around the forests to prevent (their) exploitation,” he said.
Burkina Faso’s government in 1993 introduced participative management of protected forests and signed contracts with people living around them. The aim of the new approach was to improve agricultural, forest and pasture resources, help the forests regenerate and reduce poverty, Ouédraogo said.
Adama Bako, president of the Union of Forest Management Groups in the Centre West of Burkina Faso, said the new agreement made big changes.
“Until then we were cutting trees haphazardly, as we wanted, and we had regular problems with the Ministry of Environment’s forest guards,” he said. “But now we know what to cut and we deal with trespassers ourselves.”
Seventeen such unions are now scattered across the country, representing 400 groups who use but also keep an eye on some 600,000 hectares (1.5 million acres) of land that the government is co-managing with local populations.
An economic evaluation conducted in 2009 by the Ministry of Agriculture, Water and Fisheries showed that investment in sustainable use of forests could lead to an increase in revenue for farmers ranging from 25 to 40 percent.
But growing pressures on Burkina Faso’s resources, including its forests, now threatens the balance that has protected the forests and the livelihoods of those who have long depended on them.
Back in the 1990s, families could make 100,000 to 130,000 CFA ($200 to $260) a week cutting wood “but now we earn far less” as a result of loss and degradation of forests, said Bako, of the Union of Forest Management Groups.
LACK OF MONITORING
One problem is that Burkina Faso has just one forest monitor for every 10,000 to 15,000 hectares of forest, officials say. Another is the country’s rapid 3.1 percent rate of population growth, which puts added pressure each year on its resources.
At the national level, income from forests is a crucial contributor to public revenue. Fees, taxes, and permits paid for the use of timber and other wood products contributes 5.6 percent of GDP, and forest products support a growing number of small and medium-sized businesses.
The International Union for Nature Conservation (IUCN) describes as “extremely high” the rate of forest deforestation in Burkina Faso’s Centre West region between 1992 and 2009. About 40 percent of that loss was to expansion of farming, the organisation says.
Despite national campaigns for reforestation and against bushfires, growing pressures on land have led to forest declines of about 4 percent a year between 1992 and 2002, according to the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development. About 50,000 hectares (123,000 acres) of forest disappear each year to meet demand for wood energy, the ministry said.
According to Belemsobgo, Burkina Faso was due to by now have protected 30 percent of its forests, but has so far protected only 13 to 14 percent. To counter continuing losses, the ministry hopes to put more forest in the hands of communities that live near them, in hopes they can more effectively protect them.
“We are going to increase the protected forests by going after ll small forests disseminated all over the country, including privately owned forests,” Belemsobgo said.
NEW SOURCES OF INCOME
Using Forest Investment Program (FIP) funds, the country hopes to shift communities away from traditional forest exploitation – such as wood cutting for charcoal – and toward things like growing crops amid trees and running nurseries. Another aim is to sequester carbon and perhaps access income from carbon markets, and to promote use of good management techniques, such as rotating forest grazing areas.
“At the end, the FIP will contribute to a better management of forests in Burkina Faso and support all efforts to face climate change in the forestry sector,” Belemsobgo predicted.
To protect the Tiago forest, for instance, which exists around the villages of Kion, Tenado and Dassa, some of the project funds will go to improve a bridge linking two parts of the forest.
Right now, that bridge over the River Mouhoun is impassible in the rainy season – one reason the farmers who cut two acres of trees in the forest to plant millet may have thought they could get away with it, said Ouédraogo, who ordered the destruction of the millet field.
Eight people were later arrested in conjunction with the illegal forest cutting to plant millet, and fined $100 each, Ouédraogo said.
During consultations before the start of FIP activities in Burkina Faso, the River Mouhoun bridge was raised as a priority item to protect the Tiogo forest, one of six protected reserves around the country, he said.
About a quarter of the forest’s 30,000 hectares (74,000 acres) have already been damaged as a result of incursions by farmers, overgrazing and bushfires, he said.
The effort to better protect Burkina Faso’s forests also hopes to set in place a foundation to establish REDD+ - an international effort to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation – in the country.
According to the implementation plan for Burkina’s FIP grant, the forest protection project could reduce carbon dioxide emissions linked to deforestation and land degradation in Burkina Faso by around 30 to 70 million tons over a period of 10 years.
Eight pilot countries were selected for the Forest Investment Program, including three in Africa: Burkina Faso, Ghana and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Each was chosen for its potential to significantly reduce emissions from deforestation; to conserve, manage or enhance carbon stocks; and to incorporate climate finance into policy frameworks and development activities, according to the Climate Investment Funds website.
By Barbara Fraser originally published May 21, 2014 on Thomson Reuters Foundation.Photo:Ernesto Benavides/TRF
To see an accompanying slideshow of images from Peru's central Amazon, click here.
Burkina Faso has successfully become a member of the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF). Burkina Faso’s approval as a REDD+ country has been greatly assisted by its experience with the Forest Investment Program (FIP) of the Climate Investment Funds (CIF).
With African Development Bank (AfDB) support, Burkina Faso has received an $11.5 million grant from the Climate Investment Funds’ (CIF) Forest Investment Program (FIP) to undertake the Gazetted Forests Participatory Management Project for REDD+ to create critically needed transformation of 12 of its gazetted forests.
November 1, 2013 Washington, D.C. — The Climate Investment Funds (CIF) concluded their week-long semi-annual Trust Funds Committees meetings today, endorsing over $385 million to support forest investments in Peru ($50m), energy access expansion in Liberia ($50m), and targeted private sector initiatives in clean technology, renewable energy financing, forest investments, and climate adaptation ($285.7m).
Reaching out to the private sector
To extend its reach to the private sector, the CIF governing bodies endorsed for the first time specific allocations for private sector initiatives through all four funding windows of the CIF.
Under the Clean Technology Fund (CTF), $150 million was approved for two Dedicated Private Sector Programs (DPSP): the Utility Scale Renewable Energy Program ($115m) to catalyze a global funding effort to scale up renewable energy, and the Renewable Mini-grids and Distributed Power Generation Program ($35m) to leverage private investment for rural and under-served communities.
Under the competitive private sector set-asides of the Pilot Program for Climate Resilience (PPCR), Forest Investment Program (FIP), and Scaling Up Renewable Energy for Low Income Countries (SREP), 15 project concepts, totaling over $135 million, were endorsed for further preparation by the multilateral development banks and full CIF funding approval in 2014. These include five forest-related initiatives in FIP pilot countries Brazil, Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Mexico; four renewable energy projects in SREP pilot countries Honduras, Kenya, Mali, and Nepal; and six projects for climate resilience in PPCR pilot countries Haiti, Jamaica, Mozambique, Saint Lucia, and Tajikistan.
"These new private sector mechanisms represent a significant step by the CIF to support innovative private sector financing to address climate change challenges. They will be closely monitored in the months ahead to ensure rapid implementation of funds and that lessons emerging from these efforts are captured and widely disseminated," said Patricia Bliss-Guest, CIF Program Manager.
Peru and Liberia investment plans advance
Closing out the investment planning phase of the FIP was endorsement of the final pilot country plan from Peru for $50 million.
“The process of formulating our FIP investment plan has allowed us to have a national debate, including the government, civil society, and the private sector, to identify a strategy on how to position forests as an important asset in our development and to implement enabling conditions to ensure economic growth, social inclusion, and sustainable environmental development,” stated Gabriel Quijandria Acosta, Peru's Vice Minister of Strategic Development of Natural Resources in the Ministry of the Environment.
Peru’s FIP investment plan is particularly unique for its extensive consultative process involving government and regional officials, experts from the Inter-American Development Bank and World Bank, civil society, and indigenous people and local community representatives in more than 20 meetings held in priority regions and in the capital. Stakeholder engagement is further exemplified in Peru’s FIP Steering Committee, which comprises the Ministries of Environment, Economy, Agriculture, and Culture; regional Amazonian governments; and national, regional, and local leaders of two Amazonian indigenous peoples groups: the Asociación Interétnica de Desarrollo de la Selva Peruana (AIDESEP) and Confederación de Nacionalidades Amazónicas del Perú (CONAP).
In a show of solidarity for Peru's investment plan, Daisy Sapata of AIDESEP joined Vice Minister Quijandria Acosta during his presentation to the FIP Sub-Committee to highlight the role of indigenous peoples in the Peruvian government's proposal, as well as their support.
Liberia’s $50 million investment plan was also endorsed under the SREP. In a country with less than 2 percent energy access, Liberia will use SREP resources to support efforts to increase energy access via off-grid electricity solutions; develop renewable energy such as small hydro, solar, biomass, and hybrids; and complement expansion of centralized generation and transmission facilities to contribute to the national goal of achieving 35 percent electrification rate by 2030.
“With the SREP, we will have a wide range of social economic impacts across the country. Expanding energy access will create jobs, empower women, and allow people to generate income and add value to their activities. This is going to be huge because it is looking at the grassroots level in rural communities that are far off the grid,” explained Augustus Goanue, Executive Director of the Rural & Renewable Energy Agency of the Ministry of Lands, Mines & Energy.
For more information, please contact:
Steven Shalita, CIF Communications
October 30, 2013 – Multi-stakeholder engagement is a hallmark of the Climate Investment Funds (CIF). Nowhere has this process been put to the test as in Peru, the last pilot country of the CIF’s Forest Investment Program (FIP) to finalize its investment plan, which was endorsed today by the CIF governing bodies for $50 million. Delays have proven to be necessary to ensure all stakeholders, particularly indigenous peoples, have had a voice in this critical planning stage.
“We have had an intense consultation and participation process, including the two major Amazonian indigenous peoples groups, NGOs, and the private sector. The process has taken more time than originally expected, but, in the end, has produced a more legitimate and technically strong document,” stated Gabriel Quijandria, Peru's Vice Minister of Strategic Development of Natural Resources in the Ministry of the Environment.
This extensive engagement process has involved government and regional officials, experts from the Inter-American Development Bank and World Bank, civil society, and indigenous people and local community representatives in more than 20 meetings held in priority regions and in the capital.
Over the summer, significant forward motion was made as a set of 40 observations concerning Peru’s FIP investment plan were discussed and clarified to by Peru’s FIP Steering Committee—comprising the Ministries of Environment, Economy, Agriculture, and Culture, and the Regional Amazonian Governments—and national, regional, and local leaders of two Amazonian indigenous peoples groups: the Asociación Interétnica de Desarrollo de la Selva Peruana (AIDESEP) and Confederación de Nacionalidades Amazónicas del Perú (CONAP).
To keep dialogue open and ensure transparency, AIDESEP and CONAP have joined Peru’s FIP Steering Committee. It was also agreed that $14.5 million of FIP financing to Peru will be allocated to three priorities: $7 million to address titling of indigenous communities, $4 million to drive community forest management, and $3.5 million to support indigenous governance.
In a show of solidarity for Peru's investment plan, Daisy Sapata of AIDESEP joined Vice Minister Quijandria during his presentation to the FIP Sub-Committee today to highlight the role of indigenous peoples in the Peruvian government's proposal, as well as their support.
According to AIDESEP, “We celebrate the efforts of national and regional leaders and advisers of AIDESEP who, since 2010, have been impacting the world, waging a long and relentless fight based on a critical approach that includes alternatives, in a bid to transform the threat of REDD+ into an opportunity.”
“Peru’s participatory involvement of indigenous peoples is worth recognizing. It allows Peru’s investment plan to be fully supported by the indigenous peoples whose issues were heard and whose rights were respected,” commented Berenice Hernández Toro, FIP Sub-Committee member from Mexico.
“It is impressive to see that transformation is possible even during the development of an investment plan. The development of a common vision between the stakeholders, including the Peruvian government and indigenous peoples, on the use of FIP resources is a great success and shows that the FIP process is working. Trust is being built that will carry over into project implementation and beyond,” said Ben Green, FIP Sub-Committee member from the United Kingdom.
The FIP investment plan of Peru includes a number of activities that will help preserve the rich biodiversity of the country, including titling and registration of rural properties and communal lands with the aim of ending open access to forest resources, improvement of forest and environmental governance, enhancement of the value of environmental assets of forests and degraded areas, and activities for innovation and market development.
For more information, please contact:
Peru has secured $50 million in funding from the Forest Investment Program (FIP) to be invested in activities that will fight deforestation and forest degradation throughout the country. Peru's investment plan was approved in the FIP Sub Committee that took place in Washington, D.C. on October 30. The plan was presented by a high-level delegation from Peru, composed by members of key Ministries and representatives of indigenous people groups from the country.